Is there a vitamin PQQ should be taken with?
Are there any other vitamin supplements that work well with PQQ?
As you are probably aware from reading PQQ, pyrroloquinoline quinone seems to act in promoting mitochondriogenesis and, in a broader context, by protecting neural tissue. Compounds that may promote mitochondriogenesis included resveratrol, quercetin, and hydroxytyrosol (found in olive oil). Other agents that promote mitochondrial function and performance may be synergistic. Such compounds include CoQ10 and carnitine. They either facilitate various metabolic events or aid in moving substrate into and out of the mitochondria. The point here is that just because both PQQ and CoQ10 are quinones, they are doing very different things. One would not want to substitute one for the other. Also, consider the following, consuming a traditionally well-balanced diet (with or without supplements) and regular aggressive exercise is also an excellent formula to stimulate mitochondriogenesis, particularly in muscle. Think of given supplements as a way to potentially optimize this process.
Does lipoic acid function synergistically with PQQ, vitamin C or other antioxidants?
Lipoic acid is a cofactor for one of the first steps in a major mitochondrial metabolic pathway. Ascorbic acid plays a number of cellular roles – only a few are specific to mitochondria. As chemicals, they work quite differently in the human body. There are a number of references that one can cite. The following is a good example. (Valdecantos et al. Vitamin C, resveratrol and lipoic acid actions on isolated rat liver mitochondria: all antioxidants but different. Redox Rep. 2010; 15:207-16).
What are some good antioxidants?
Many compounds are touted as better or worst regarding there antioxidant potential in chemical assays. In a recent paper, leaders in this field have pointed out that for many types of antioxidants, there effects are due to mechanisms that have little to do with their antioxidant potential (e.g., Hollman et al. The Biological Relevance of Direct Antioxidant Effects of Polyphenols for Cardiovascular Health in Humans Is Not Established. J Nutr. 2011 Mar 30). Although some compounds exert beneficial effects on some biomarkers of cardiovascular health, there is no evidence that this is caused by improvements in their antioxidant capacity. Rather, the real mechanisms have to do with cellular signaling, or the up- or down-regulation of complex metabolic pathways. To use, PQQ as an example, in chemical assays, it is easy to set conditions so that it may function as both a potent pro- and anti-oxidant. What pyrroloquinoline quinone can potentially do is stimulate mitochondriogenesis. The best way a cell has to coordinate oxidative and free radical potential is to optimize cellular organelles, such as mitochondria that are directly involved in oxidative metabolism.